Bio3520 Chapter 3 Proximate Factors
  1. A trait such as plumage coloration in finches has            causes and           causes such as       choice.
  2. The female mate choice behavior in turn has an           cause in the male's fitness as a parent.
  3. Proximate factors affecting behavior include the following.
    •           produced by the            system, such as testosterone and epinephrine, can affect both the strength and form of a behavioral response.
    • The          system affects faster behavioral responses via nerve cells called          which control either the release of hormones or the action of muscles.
      • Some birds are capable of                 sleep as an antipredator strategy.
    • Variations at the              level, such as genes and proteins, contribute the most fundamental factors affecting behavior.
    • Environmental factors also affect behavior: nest              plays a proximate role in sex determination in many reptiles.
    •           enables an animal to adjust its behavior to its environment, and requires a          system.