Learning occurs when a behavior is
as a result of
where morphological changes take place in response to environmental conditions.
Exposure to a single
can result non-associative responses of
. Most learning is
takes place when a
(appetitive or aversive) is associated with a consequence (reward or punishment).
takes place when a second stimulus also elicits the
occurs if the second-order is stronger than the original conditioned
occurs if the second-order is weaker than when conditioned to both conditioned
(or instrumental or goal-directed)
occurs when a
, the storing and retrieval of
Interpopulation comparisons show that animals that live in
tend to learn faster than solitary
and exposure to predators can
for the ability to learn to avoid
Learning plays a role in several aspects of animal life.
selection: migratory fish such as
associated with their natal streams at a young age.
bond formation: animals' ability to learn about their mate depends on the amount of
some animals can learn familial relationships.
toward rivals: fish can be
to be more aggressive, leading to