Bio3520 Chapter 4 Learning
  1. Learning occurs when a behavior is modified as a result of             .
  2. This includes             plasticity, where morphological changes take place in response to environmental conditions.
  3. Exposure to a single stimulus can result non-associative responses of                or              . Most learning is              .
  4.            (or Pavlovian ) conditioning takes place when a stimulus (appetitive or aversive) is associated with a consequence (reward or punishment).
    •         -order conditioning takes place when a second stimulus also elicits the              response.
    •                occurs if the second-order is stronger than the original conditioned response.
    •           occurs if the second-order is weaker than when conditioned to both conditioned stimuli.
  5.          (or instrumental or goal-directed) conditioning occurs when a           is associated with a              (reinforcement).
  6. Learning requires         , the storing and retrieval of experiences, and perhaps selective             .
  7. Interpopulation comparisons show that animals that live in         tend to learn faster than solitary animals, and exposure to predators can         for the ability to learn to avoid predators.
  8. Learning plays a role in several aspects of animal life.
    •          selection: migratory fish such as salmon learn        associated with their natal streams at a young age.
    •       bond formation: animals' ability to learn about their mate depends on the amount of           investment.
    •      recognition: some animals can learn familial relationships.
    •             toward rivals: fish can be trained to be more aggressive, leading to         and loser effects.