Bio3520 Chapter 8 Kinship
  1. Many colonial animals exhibit            (altruistic) behavior, such as giving alarm calls, as a consequence of      selection.
  2. Kinship also plays a role in preventing             behavior.
  3. Kin selection can be explained by            fitness: an individual can proliferate its        by producing its own offspring, or offspring of close relatives.
  4. The selective advantage of altruism can be quantified by measuring:
    • the          to the recipient (b)
    • the       to the altruist (c)
    • the              of relatedness (r)
  5. Natural selection favors altruism when rb > c (             rule); this can be estimated by counting offspring.
  6.            fitness can be a model for understanding behaviors associated with family dynamics.
    •              breeding is correlated with genetic relatedness.
    • Family          can occur when reproductive opportunities materialize elsewhere.
    • Families that control high-quality resources may become            in which the resource is transmitted, sometimes by territory          , over successive generations.
    • Step-parents invest less in their stepchildren than in their             children.
  7. Parent-offspring conflict can also occur, as in weaning situations.
  8.          rivalry can be intense, especially when            are scarce; a major factor in sib-sib competition is        order.
  9. Kin              may be based on an "internal template" using visual or chemical cues.
  10. Some species simply accept individuals in their            as kin, though this strategy can be broken by       parasites such as cuckoos.