to the individuals involved.
Cooperative behavior provides
to the individual only if other group members also behave
on the evolution and maintenance of cooperation are:
can be modeled by
theory, in particular the non-zero-sum game of
where a strategy of "always
" may preclude cooperation.
Players that encounter each other again engage in the
prisoner's dilemma, where a robust strategy is
(TFT), which may explain
such as predator
? This is true if a fish that trails an inspector receives a
payoff than if it inspected with an
and the payoff is iterated when inspectors transfer the
? This is true for population that do engage in inspection
since those individuals recognize the
involved in the behavior.
? This is true if the payoff to mutual
) is greater than that inspecting alone (
of many bait fish indicate that lone fish suffer high rates of predation.
Do inspectors use the
strategy? Inspectors appear to be:
; they cooperate in inspecting at about the same time,
; inspectors cease inspection if their partner
: if a "cheater" resumes inspection, its partner resumes inspection as well.
no score-keeping is required for cooperation.
may call other sparrows to share
when the benefit, such as
detection, outweighs the cost of sharing.
predict that between groups, natural selection favors
if groups with more cooperators produce a benefit such as more offspring.
analysis can reveal the evolutionary history of behaviors such as cooperative
often leads to reproductive
role in such behaviors.
is found in
, where two or more individuals cooperate against another individual or
usually to gain access to
Interspecific cooperation (
) is also important in shaping behavior between many animal species, such as black
and the Imperial Blue butterfly, which communicate by