Bio3520 Chapter 10 Foraging
  1. Animal           may involve complex              relationships among several species.
  2. Some animals, especially birds in the           family are capable of tremendous          memory to remember the locations of food caches.
  3. According to the          foraging theory,            rate with the most profitable food item determines an animal's choice of food.
  4. The           value theorem predicts how much time a forager should stay in a given patch.
  5. Foraging for energy-rich foods may need to be balanced against the need to consume energy-poor food that provide nutrients such as         ; this need can be estimated by         programming models.
  6. Hungry foragers should be       prone, that is, willing to assume greater variance (risk) in food intake. Less hungry individuals tend to be more risk averse.
  7. Learning how and on what to forage may involve innovations;            size often correlates with the frequency of such foraging innovations.
  8. The             theory of learning predicts that a reward obtained by            effort is valued more than the same reward obtained with       effort.
  9. In group-living species, social interactions within a group can impact foraging behavior.
    • Cooperative          in wild dogs and chimpanzees increases foraging success for the group.
    • Scavengers benefit from         learning, though             may inhibit learning.
    •            of the foraging behavior of others may alter an individual's food choice.
    • Learning about foraging environments may be obtained from         information.
  10. Foraging behavior is often controlled by       products such as the period gene and hormones.