Chapter 9 Self Quiz Summary

  1. Animals often exhibit cooperation among individuals despite possible to the individuals involved.
  2. Cooperative behavior provides to the individual only if other group members also behave cooperatively.
  3. Four models on the evolution and maintenance of cooperation are: , byproduct , selection, and selection.
    • Reciprocity can be modeled by theory, in particular the non-zero-sum game of dilemma, where a strategy of "always " may preclude cooperation.
      • Players that encounter each other again engage in the prisoner's dilemma, where a robust strategy is for tat (TFT), which may explain activities such as predator inspection. playvideo
        • ls T > R? This is true if a fish that trails an inspector receives a payoff than if it inspected with an partner and the payoff is iterated when inspectors transfer the information they receive.
        • Is R > P? This is true for population that do engage in inspection behavior, since those individuals recognize the involved in the behavior.
        • Is P > S? This is true if the payoff to mutual (P) is greater than that inspecting alone (S); the behavior of many bait fish indicate that lone fish suffer high rates of predation.
        • Do inspectors use the strategy? Inspectors appear to be:
          • ; they cooperate in inspecting at about the same time,
          • ; inspectors cease inspection if their partner stops.
          • : if a "cheater" resumes inspection, its partner resumes inspection as well.
    • Byproduct mutualism involves an immediate for not cooperating; no score-keeping is required for cooperation.
      • House sparrows may call other sparrows to share when the benefit, such as detection, outweighs the cost of sharing.
    • Group selection models predict that between groups, natural selection favors if groups with more cooperators produce a benefit such as more offspring.
  4. A analysis can reveal the evolutionary history of behaviors such as cooperative breeding.
  5. Cooperative breeding often leads to reproductive of nondominant individuals. Often play a proximate role in such behaviors.
  6. Cooperation among males is found in , where two or more individuals cooperate against another individual or group, usually to gain access to females.
  7. Interspecific cooperation ( ) is also important in shaping behavior between many animal species, such as black ants and the Imperial Blue butterfly, which communicate by their bodies.
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